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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 12

Vera 于2014-11-06发布 l 已有人浏览
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学习单词critical theory、public choice theory和attachment theory及其相关讲解。

Explanation of English Words unit 12

英语单词讲解 unit 12

1.critical theory
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them."

1.批判理论
在人文与社会科学?#26657;?#25209;判理论这个名词通常?#32654;?#25351;称各个领域里的新兴理论(约略从1960年代开始),其中有结构主义、后结构主义、解构、马克思主义、女性主义……等等。而与它相关的领域之发展则包含有文学理论(这常常?#26725;?#21028;理论的一个粗略同义词)、文化研究、美学、理论社会学、社会理论、欧陆哲学等等。

2.public choice theory
Public choice or public choice theory refers to "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science". Its content includes the study of political behavior. In political science, it is the subset of positive political theory that studies self-interested agents (voters, politicians, bureaucrats) and their interactions, which can be represented in a number of ways, such as standard constrained utility maximization, game theory, or decision theory. Public choice analysis has roots in positive analysis ("what is") but is often used for normative purposes ("what ought to be") in order to identify a problem or suggest improvements to constitutional rules (i.e., constitutional economics).

2.公共选择理论
公共选择理论是一种以现代经济学分析民主立宪制政府的各种问题的学科,传?#25104;?#26159;属于政治学的范畴(对此更为普遍的称呼则是“政治经济学”,但应该注意这不可和马克思主义对这词的定义混为一谈)。公共选择理论研究选民、政治人物、以及政府官员们的行为,假设他们?#38469;?#20986;于私利而采取行动的个人,以此研?#20811;?#20204;在民主体制或其他类似的社会体制下进行的互动。公共选择理论也采用许多不同的研究工具进行研究,包括了研究?#23381;?#29992;最大化的局限、博弈论、或决策论。公共选择理论的分析方式很大一部分是根基于实证分析的方法上(“这是什么”);但?#35789;?#23558;此作为研究规范(“这应该是什么”)的工具,以探索问题的所在点、并研究如何在宪政体制内改善这些问题。公共选择理论提出的主要基础之一是理性选择理论(Rational choice),假设人们的行为?#38469;?#20986;自从有限的可用手段里挑选达成目标的途径。另一个研究目标不同、但却有相同研究基础的学科则是实证政治理论(Positive political theory)。而社会选择理论(Social choice theory)也是一个相关联的研究领域。

3.attachment theory
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term interpersonal relationships between humans. However, ‘attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships. It addresses only a specific facet’ (Waters et al. 2005: 81): how human beings respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or perceiving a threat. In infants, attachment as a motivational and behavioral system directs the child to seek proximity with a familiar caregiver when they are alarmed, with the expectation that they will receive protection and emotional support. Bowlby believed that the tendency for primate infants to develop attachments to familiar caregivers was the result of evolutionary pressures, since attachment behavior would facilitate the infant’s survival in the face of dangers such as predation or exposure to the elements.

3.依附理论
依附理论是一种心理学、演化、动物行为学理论,旨在探讨“人际关系”:二或多个个体间的感情纽带。依附理论最重要的原则是,幼童因为社会与情?#34892;?#27714;,而至少与?#24187;?#20027;要照顾者发展出亲近关系,否则将造成其心理与交际功能长久的不健全。此理论是由精神病学家、精神分析学家约翰·鲍?#20154;?#25552;出。

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