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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 14

Vera 于2014-11-08发布 l 已有人浏览
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学习单词Representative democracy、Utilitarianism和Supply-side economics及其相关讲解。

Explanation of English Words unit 14

英语单词讲解 unit 14

1.Representative democracy
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. All modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and Germany is a parliamentary republic.

1.代议民主制
代议民主制,又称间?#29992;?#20027;制,是由公民以选举形式选出立法机关的成?#20445;?#24182;代表其在议会?#34892;惺谷?#21147;(称为代议),并与直?#29992;?#20027;制相?#30784;?除了在选举中外,选民和被选者并无?#38469;?#20851;系,即被选者在议会中的行为未必真正反映选民的意?#31119;?#20294;其表现却直接影响下次选举中选民的投票取向。 民主政治可?#26434;行?#22810;种分类方式,没有任?#25105;?#31181;分类法具有绝?#23381;裕?#36203;尔德曾顺着历史发展的先后,将民主政治分成九种类型,分别是古典(?#21069;?#24335;)民主、共和主义民主、?#26434;?#20027;义民主、社会主义(共产主义)民主、?#36203;?#24335;精英民主、多元主义民主、法治民主、参与式民主及自主式(世界主义)民主?#21462;?#32780;最常见的分类方式就是直?#29992;?#20027;与代议民主。而直?#29992;?#20027;通常不?#35270;?#20110;现代大型国家。

2.Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing total benefit and reducing suffering or the negatives. This theory is an economic analysis that is human-centered (or anthropocentric) and has a moral foundation.

2.功利主义
功利主义,是伦理学中的一个理论。提倡?#38750;?ldquo;最大幸福”,认为实用即至善的理论,相信决定行为?#23454;?#19982;否的标准在于其结果的实用程?#21462;?#20027;要哲学家有杰瑞米·边沁、约翰·斯图尔特·密尔?#21462;?/p>

3.Supply-side economics
Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomics that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering barriers for people to produce (supply) goods and services as well as invest in capital. According to supply-side economics, consumers will then benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices; furthermore, the investment and expansion of businesses will increase the demand for employees. Typical policy recommendations of supply-side economists are lower marginal tax rates and less regulation.

3.供应学派经济学
供应学派经济学是宏观经济思想的一种,认为可?#26434;?#38477;低生产(供应)商品和服务的?#20064;?#26469;?#34892;?#22320;创造经济增长,例如降低所得税和资本收益税,以及?#24066;?#26356;大、更灵活的减少管制。根据供给学派的看法,消费者会从中受益,生产者以更低的价格提供更多的商品和服务。供给面学派建议,政府降低边际税率和监控。此派主要依据拉弗曲线。

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