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“火星风暴”可以揭示火星的形成

zlxxm 于2019-12-26发布 l 已有人浏览
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“就像地球上有地震一样,火星上也?#23567;?#28779;星震’。“尽管我们在火星上看到的地震实际上更类似于我们在板块中间看到的地震。”
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Marsquakes' Could Reveal How Mars Was Built

“火星风暴”可以揭示火星的形成

Just like here on Earth we have earthquakes, the planet Mars has... 'marsquakes.' "Although the quakes we see on Mars are actually more similar to the kinds of things we see in the middle of plates. Something that might happen in Montana or South Carolina for example."Bruce Banerdt, a planetary geophysicist at the Jet Propulsion Lab in California.

“就像地球上有地震一样,火星上也有‘火星震’。“尽管我们在火星上看到的地震实际上更类似于我们在板块中间看到的地震。就?#28909;?#22312;蒙大拿或南卡罗莱纳可能发生的地震一样。”加州喷气推进实验室的行星地球物理学?#20063;?#40065;斯·巴?#21830;?#22914;是说。

He explains that as the hot center of the planet cools, it slowly shrinks. "So the frozen outer layers, after a while they're too big for the rest of the globe and they have to kind of crinkle to stay contiguous on a shrinking ball." And that crinkling causes quakes.

他解释说,随着地球中心温度的降低,它会慢慢缩小。“因此,冰冻的外层在一段时间后就会变得比地球上的其他地?#25581;?#22823;,也就必须产生一些褶皱,才能在一个不断缩小的球体上保持连续。”这种褶皱会引起地震。

NASA's InSight mission, which landed on the Red Planet about a year ago, placed a seismometer on the planet's surface, to listen for quakes. And it's captured signals from more than a hundred - some large enough that you'd feel them if you were standing nearby. Like this magnitude 3.7 recorded back in May. <> It's been sped up to be audible - and you really need headphones to hear the ferocious rumbling. <>

一年前,美国国家航空?#25945;?#23616;(NASA)的“洞察号”(InSight)探测器在火星表面安装了一个地震仪,以监测地震。它从一百多个信号中捕捉信号——有些信号大到让人误以为就发生在身?#38405;?#26679;。?#28909;?月份记录的3.7级。火星震的声音已经被加快到可以听到的程度——你真的需要戴上耳机才能听到那凶猛的隆隆声。

We use these signals from Mars quakes to probe the deep interior of Mars. They work almost like x-rays. They pass through the planet, they bounce off boundaries, like between the crust and the mantle, the way an x-ray bounces off a bone. And we can actually over time put together a 3-D image of the inside of a planet using seismology.

“我们利用这些来自火星地震的信号来探测火星的深处。它们就像X光一样工作。它们穿过地球,在地壳和地幔之间边界上反弹,就像x射线从骨头上反弹一样。随着时间的推移,我们可以利用地震学将行星内部的三维图像组合在一起。”

To accurately read those seismic sounds, though, the researchers have to filter out background noise - such as these "dinks and donks" <>. The scientists think those sounds might simply be the seismometer creaking, as it expands and contracts with daily temperature swings.

然而,为?#20439;?#30830;地解读这些地震声音,研究人员必须过?#35828;?#32972;景噪音——?#28909;?#36825;些“叮叮咚咚”的声音。科学家们认为,这些声音可能只是地震仪发出的吱吱声,因为它会随着每天的温度变化而膨胀和收缩。

InSight also has another tool, a heat probe, to directly measure the heat seeping out of that slowly cooling core. It's nicknamed "The Mole," because it's designed to burrow 16 feet below the Martian surface. Although right now, it's stuck at just 14 inches deep.

洞察号还有另一个工具,那就是一个热探头。它可以直接测?#30475;?#32531;慢冷却的内核渗出的热量。它的绰号是“鼹鼠”,因为设计它时旨在火星表面以下16英尺的地方挖洞,尽管它现在只挖到了14英寸深。

If the geophysicists can get the Mole to burrow better, it'll give scientists one more tool to understand the Red Planet's deep history. Maybe even including how Mars and the Earth formed, 4.5 billion years ago - in what must have been a truly Richter-breaking shake-up.

如果地球物理学家能?#26126;?#40736;挖得更好,科学家们将能获得更多的工具来了解?#39274;?#32418;色星球的深层历史,甚至包括四十五亿年前火星和地球的形成过程——那一定是一场真正具有震撼力的剧变。

- Christopher Intagliata

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