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缓步类动物的蛋白质保护DNA免受化学攻击

zlxxm 于2019-12-27发布 l 已有人浏览
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缓步动物是自然界最顽强的动物之一。这种小动物也被称为水熊,它?#24378;?#20197;忍受极端条件,比如滚烫的温度、长时间的脱水甚至缺氧。
    小E英语?#38431;?#24744;,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

Tardigrade Protein Protects DNA from Chemical Attack

缓步类动物的蛋白质保护DNA免受化学攻击

Tardigrades are some of nature's toughest animals. Also known as water bears, the tiny creatures can withstand extreme conditions, like boiling hot temperatures, long periods of dehydration and even oxygen deprivation.

缓步动物是自然界最顽强的动物之一。这种小动物也被称为水熊,它?#24378;?#20197;忍受极端条件,比如滚烫的温度、长时间的脱水甚至缺氧。

One of the really cool things about tardigrades is that you can shoot them into outer space, and they can survive the vacuum and radiation of the low-Earth orbit.University of California, San Diego, biochemist Jim Kadonaga. Of course, he says tardigrades didn't evolve to endure the perils of space travel.

加州大学圣地亚哥分校生物化学家吉姆·卡多纳加表示:“水熊虫非常酷的一点是,我?#24378;?#20197;把它们发射到外太空,它?#24378;?#20197;在低地球轨道的真空和辐射中存活下?#30784;?rdquo;他还表示,水熊虫的进化并不是为了承受危险的太?#31456;瞇小?/p>

Many tardigrades live in environments that are both wet and dry, like moss. And when it's wet, they're active. And when it's dry, they can go into a desiccated state that's something like a state of suspended animation.

“许多缓步动物生活在?#31508;?#21644;干燥的环境?#26657;?#27604;如苔藓。当天气?#31508;保?#23427;们就会活?#37202;鵠础?#24403;天气干燥?#20445;?#23427;们会进入一种干燥的状态,就像一种假死状态。”

Normally, dehydration would make tardigrade DNA susceptible to damage from chemicals called hydroxyl radicals, which form when water molecules split. They also form when DNA is exposed to radiation. But Kadonaga suspected that a protein found only in tardigrades, called Dsup, might protect their DNA under both conditions. (Dsup stands for "damage suppressor protein.")"And the remarkable thing about this Dsup protein is that when you put it into human cells in the laboratory, it makes those cells more resistant to x-ray radiation."

通常情况下,脱水会使缓步DNA容易受到一种叫做羟自由基的化学物质的伤害,这种物质是水分子?#33267;?#26102;形成的。当DNA受到辐射时也会产生这种物质。但卡多纳加怀疑在这两种情况下,只存在于缓步动物身上的一种叫做Dsup的蛋白质可能会保护它们的DNA。(Dsup是“损伤?#31181;?#34507;白”的缩写)“这种Dsup蛋白的特别之处在于,当你把它放入实验室的人类细胞?#26657;?#23427;会使这些细胞更能抵抗x射线辐射。”

Kadonaga's team, led by then undergraduate student Carolina Chavez, studied how Dsup protects DNA in cells. They found that it binds to chromatin, the compact structure that allows long molecules of DNA to ball up and fit into a tiny cell. The researchers think Dsup acts as a sort of chromatin insulator, shielding DNA from attack by hydroxyl radicals. They conclude that the protein is likely the key to the tardigrade's extreme hardiness in conditions that would prove lethal to most other organisms.The study appears in the journal eLife.

卡多纳加的团队,由当时的本科生卡罗莱纳·查维斯领导。他们研究了Dsup如何保护细胞中的DNA。研究发现这种蛋白质能与染色质结合,染色质是一种紧密的结构,它能使DNA的长分子聚集起来,并适合一个微小的细胞。研究人?#27604;?#20026;,Dsup作为一种染色质绝缘体,保护DNA免受羟基自由基的攻击。他们?#36152;?#30340;结论是,这种蛋白质可能是这种缓步动物在对大多数其他生物都是?#26053;?#30340;条件下保持极端耐受性的关键。这项研究发表在《eLife》杂志上。

Kadonaga says understanding the tardigrade's secret weapon may also inform biotechnology and pharmaceutical research."And so, now that we know how Dsup works, we might be able to use that knowledge to make designer versions of Dsup that can be used to potentially make cells more durable or longer-lived."

卡多纳加说,了解缓步动物的秘密武器也可能为生物技术和制药研究提供信息。“所以,现在我们知道了Dsup的工作原理,我们也许能够利用这些知识制造出人造版本的Dsup,可以潜在地使细胞更耐用或更长寿。”

- Susanne Bard

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